Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000 | 2005

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000

John W. Lund(1), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Alex Sifford(2), and R. Gordon Bloomquist(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR
(3)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
Klamath Falls OR: Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, 2000.

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The presentinstalled capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

Conclusions
Direct heat use has had a steady growth of six percent compounded annually over the past ten years. This compares to the growth rate of four percent between 1980 and 1990. Growth during 1990 to 2000 could have been higher, but competition from natural gas was a major factor. There are some positive signs on the horizon, in additional to the aquaculture growth, with proposed new district heating projects in Mammoth, CA, Reno, NV and Sun Valley, ID, and a zinc extraction plant in the Imperial Valley. The Reno project could expand district heating by 250 MWt with large commercial and industrial building heating (Lienau, 1997). The zinc project by CalEnergy Company, Inc., brought on-line in mid-2000, extracts 33,000 tons (30,000 tonnes) of zinc annually from geothermal water using power from a new geothermal electric plant. The waste water from eight power plants (totaling 300 MWe), having 600 ppm of zinc is utilized. In addition, the extraction of silica and manganese will also be considered (Clutter, 2000).

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp106.pdf]

The United States of America Country Update
John W. Lund(1), R. Gordon Bloomquist(2), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Joel Renner(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
(3)Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID
Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source(geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes of equivalent fuel oil per years and reduces air pollution by almost eight million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil.

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp121.pdf]

4 comments:

daniel said...

Fantastic info...I have been very interested in geothermal energy as of late, especially after Gov. Schwarzenegger formed a bill into law that set a CO2 limit on coal plants as a future source of electricity in the West Coast market. This is a good (early) time for geothermal energy production.

I would also recommend this report to everyone...

http://www.whiskeyandgunpowder.com/Report/geoWP.html

-Cheers!

vernando sinaga said...

Dear Mr. / Mrs.



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We are looking forward to receive your feedback soon on your interest to participate on this five-yearly global event. Please feel free to contact me for any additional information inquiry. Thank you for your attention.





Yours sincerely,





Vernando Sinaga

WGC 2010 Exhibition Officer



E-mail: vernando@wgc2010.org

Website: www.wgc2010.org

Mobile: +62 81348534785

Tel: +62 21 5764240

Fax: +62 21 5764239

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Geothermal Energy said...

At a time when geothermal is looking very promising... it would be nice to see this blog revived.

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