Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000 | 2005

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000

John W. Lund(1), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Alex Sifford(2), and R. Gordon Bloomquist(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR
(3)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
Klamath Falls OR: Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, 2000.

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The presentinstalled capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

Conclusions
Direct heat use has had a steady growth of six percent compounded annually over the past ten years. This compares to the growth rate of four percent between 1980 and 1990. Growth during 1990 to 2000 could have been higher, but competition from natural gas was a major factor. There are some positive signs on the horizon, in additional to the aquaculture growth, with proposed new district heating projects in Mammoth, CA, Reno, NV and Sun Valley, ID, and a zinc extraction plant in the Imperial Valley. The Reno project could expand district heating by 250 MWt with large commercial and industrial building heating (Lienau, 1997). The zinc project by CalEnergy Company, Inc., brought on-line in mid-2000, extracts 33,000 tons (30,000 tonnes) of zinc annually from geothermal water using power from a new geothermal electric plant. The waste water from eight power plants (totaling 300 MWe), having 600 ppm of zinc is utilized. In addition, the extraction of silica and manganese will also be considered (Clutter, 2000).

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp106.pdf]

The United States of America Country Update
John W. Lund(1), R. Gordon Bloomquist(2), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Joel Renner(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
(3)Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID
Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source(geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes of equivalent fuel oil per years and reduces air pollution by almost eight million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil.

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp121.pdf]

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption


Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption: Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption - Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design, Izmir, Turkey, 6-17 June 2005
Editor: Halime Ö. Paksoy,

| Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 | xii, 447 p. | Hardcover | ISBN 9781402052880 |

Series: NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry , Vol. 234

About this book
We all share a small planet. Our growing thirst for energy already threatens the future of our earth. Fossil fuels – energy resources of today – are not evenly distributed on the earth. 10% of the world’s population exploits 90% of its resources. Today’s energy systems rely heavily on fossil fuel resources which are diminishing ever faster.

The world must prepare for a future without fossil fuels.

Thermal energy storage provides us with a flexible heating and/or cooling tool to combat climate change through conserving energy and increasing energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources.

Thermal storage applications have been proven to be efficient and financially viable, yet they have not been exploited sufficiently.

Çukurova University, Turkey in collaboration with Ljubljana University, Slovenia and the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Energy Conservation Through Energy Storage (IEA ECES IA) has organized this NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption – Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design (NATO ASI TESSEC), in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey on June 6-17, 2005.

Eminent experts who have worked in a number of Annexes of IEA ECES IA were among the lecturers of this Advanced Study Institute. 24 lecturers from Canada, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA have all enthusiastically contributed to the scientific programme. In Çesme, Turkey, 65 students from 17 countries participated in this 2 week summer school.

This book contains the manuscripts prepared based on the lectures included in the scientific programme of the NATO ASI TESSEC. ... [and] [d]esign example assignments from the computer workshops [are also provided].

Table of Contents
Preface
List of Contributors.
I. Introduction
History of Thermal Energy Storage; E. Morofsk. Energetic, Exergetic, Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage Systems; I. Dincer and M.A. Rosen.
II. Climate Change and Thermal Energy Storage
What Engineers Need to Know about Climate Change and Energy Storage; E. Morofsky. Global Warming is Large-Scale Thermal Energy Storage; Bo Nordell. Energy Storage for Sustainable Future - A Solution to Global Warming; H. Evliya.
III. Energy Efficient Design and Economics of TES.
Energy Efficient Building Design and Thermal Energy Storage; E. Morofsky. Heat Storage by Phase Changing Materials and Thermoeconomics; Y. Demirel.
IV. Underground Thermal Energy Storage.
Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES); O. Andersson. Advances in Geothermal Response Testing; H.J.L. Witte. Freezing Problems in Borehole Heat Exchangers; B. Nordell and A.-K. Ahlström. Three Years Monitoring of a Borehole Thermal Energy Store of a UK Office Building; H.J.L. Witte and A.J. Van Gelder. A Unique Borehole Thermal Storage System at University of Ontario Institute of Technology; I. Dincer and M.A. Rosen. BTES for Heating and Cooling of the Astronomy House in Lund; O. Andersson. Bo 01 ATES System for Heating and Cooling in Malmö; O. Andersson. ATES for District Cooling in Stockholm; O. Andersson. Energy Pile System in New Building of Sapporo City University; K. Nagano.
V. Phase Change Materials.
Phase Change Materials and their Basic Properties; H. Mehling and L.F. Cabeza. Phase Change Materials: Application Fundamentals; H. Mehling et al. Temperature Control with Phase Change Materials; L.F. Cabeza and H. Mehling. Application of PCM for Heating and Cooling in Buildings; H. Mehling, et al. The Sundsvall Snow Storage - Six Years of Operation; B. Nordell and K. Skogsberg. Development of the PCM Floor Supply Air Conditioning System; K. Nagano.
VI. Thermochemical Energy Storage.
Chemical Energy Conversion Technologies for Efficient Energy Use; Y. Kato. Sorption Theory for Thermal Energy Storage; A. Hauer. Adsorption Systems for TES - Design and Demonstration Projects; A. Hauer. Open Absorption Systems for Air Conditioning and Thermal Energy Storage; A. Hauer, E. Lãvemann.
Subject Index.

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Saturday, June 2, 2007

Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology


Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology
Edited by Mary H. Dickson and Mario Fanelli

Earthscan | May 2005 | Hardback | 226 pp | ISBN 1844071847 | £55.00

Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man€s efforts to tap in to this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat.

Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including:

***electricity generation
***space and district heating
***space cooling
***greenhouse heating
***aquaculture
***industrial applications.

The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics.

Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are included throughout.

Table of Contents
Geothermal Background
Electricity Generation
Space and District Heating
Space Cooling
Greenhouse Heating
Aquaculture
Industrial Applications
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
Economics and Financing
Index

Source [http://www.cplbookshop.com/contents/C2345.htm]

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