Saturday, May 26, 2007

Geothermal Power

Geothermal Power

By Neil Morris
Black Rabbit Books
Children's Books/Ages
9/12 Science
32 pages
Published 2006
ISBN 1583409068

Table of Contents
Heat from the earch ..... 4
Inside our planet ..... 6
Volcanic world ..... 8
Hot springs and geysers ..... 10
In ancient times ..... 12
Developing industry ..... 14
Direct use ..... 16
Generating electricity ..... 18
Heat pumps ..... 20
Around the world ..... 22
Renewable benefits ..... 24
Potential problems ..... 26
Future trends ..... 28
Glossary ..... 30
Index ..... 32

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Monday, May 21, 2007

Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies

Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies
By Ronald DiPippo, Energy Systems Consultant, Chancellor Professor Emeritus, University of Massachussets Dartmouth, USA

Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies is the latest book from Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. It is a single resource on all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for electric power generation. Written in one voice by a respected authority in the field with twenty-five years of experience in geothermal research, teaching, and consulting, it is intended for those involved in any aspect of the geothermal industry. Grounded in fundamental scientific and engineering principles, its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of actual case studies from historic and present-day plants. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book. The Second Law is used extensively to assess the performance and guide the design of various types of geothermal energy conversion systems. The case studies included in the third part of the book are chosen from plants around the world, and increase the reader's understanding of the elements involved in gaining access to, and making use of, this important renewable energy resource.

The book is illustrated with over 240 photographs and drawings, many in full color. Nine chapters include practice problems, with answers, for the reader to test his/her understanding of the material. A comprehensive and definitive worldwide compilation of every geothermal power plant that has ever operated, unit by unit, is given in detailed tables as an appendix. In another appendix, DiPippo offers a concise digest of applicable thermodynamics.

1. Geology of Geothermal Regions; Introduction; The earth and its atmosphere; Active geothermal regions; Model of a hydrothermal geothermal resource; Other types of geothermal resources; References; Problems. 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques: Introduction; Objectives of an exploration program; Phases of an exploration program; Synthesis and interpretation; The next step: drilling; References; Problems. 3. Geothermal Well Drilling; Introduction; Site preparation and drilling equipment; Drilling operations; Safety precautions; References; Reservoir Engineering; Introduction; Reservoir and well flow; Well testing; Reservoir modeling and simulation; References; Problems.

5. Single-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Example: Single-flash optimisation; Optimum separator temperature: An approximate formulation; Environmental aspects for single-flash plants; Equipment list for single-flash plants; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 5; Problems. 6. Double-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Temperature-entropy process diagram; Flash and separation processes; HP- and LP-turbine expansion processes; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Optimization methodology; Example: Double-flash optimisation; Scale potential in waste brine; Silica chemistry; Silica scaling potential in flash plants; Environmental aspects for double-flash plants; Equipment list for double-flash plants; Wellhead, brine and steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Geofluid disposal system; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 6; Problems. 7. Dry-Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Origins and nature of dry-steam resources; Steam gathering system; Energy conversion system; Turbine expansion process; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Example: Optimum wellhead pressure; Environmental aspects of dry-steam plants; Equipment list for dry-steam plants; Steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Condensate Disposal System; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 7; Problems. 8. Binary Cycle Power Plants: Introduction; Basic binary systems; Turbine analysis; Condenser analysis; Feedpump analysis; Heat exchanger analysis: Preheater and evaporator; Overall cycle analysis; Working fluid selection; Thermodynamic properties; Sonic velocity and turbine size; Health, safety and environmental considerations; Advanced binary cycles; Ideal binary cycle; Dual-pressure binary cycle; Dual-fluid binary cycle; Kalina binary cycles; Environmental impact of binary cycles; Equipment list for basic binary plants; Downwell pumps and motors; Brine supply system; Brine/working fluid heat exchangers; Turbine-generator and controls; Working fluid condenser, accumulator and storage system; Working fluid feed pump system; Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Brine disposal system; Fire protection system (if working fluid is flammable); References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 8; Problems; 9. Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems; Introduction; Hybrid single-flash and double-flash systems; Integrated single- and double-flash plants; Combined single- and double-flash plants; Hybrid flash-binary systems; Combined flash-binary plants; Integrated flash-binary plants; Example: Integrated flash-binary hybrid system; Total-flow systems; Axial-flow impulse turbine; Rotary separator turbine; Helical screw expander; Conclusions; Hybrid fossil-geothermal systems; Fossil-superheat systems; Geothermal-preheat system; Geopressure-geothermal hybrid systems; Combined heat and power plants; Hot dry rock and enhanced geothermal systems; Fenton Hill HDR project Hijiori HDR project; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 9; Problems. 10. Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems; Introduction; First law for open, steady systems; Second law for open, steady systems; Exergy; General concept; Exergy of fluid streams; Exergy for heat transfer; Exergy for work transfer; Exergy accounting for open, steady systems; Exergy efficiencies and applications to geothermal plants; Definitions of exergy efficiencies; Exergy efficiencies for steam turbines; Exergy efficiencies for heat exchangers; Exergy efficiencies for flash vessels; Exergy efficiencies for compressors; References; Problems.

PART THREE GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT CASE STUDIES: 11. Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy; History of development; Geology and reservoir characteristics; Power plants; Early power plants; Power plants of the modern era; Direct-intake, exhausting-to-atmosphere units; Direct-intake, condensing units; Recent power plant designs; Mitigation of environmental impact; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 11. 12. The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, U.S.A: History and early power plants; Geographic and geologic setting; Well drilling; Steam pipeline system; Power plants; Plant design under PG SMUDGEO #1 plant design; Power plant operations under Calpine ownership; Recharging the reservoir; Toward sustainability; References. 13. Cerro Prieto Power Station, Baja California Norte, Mexico: Overview of Mexican geothermal development; Cerro Prieto geographical and geological setting; Cerro Prieto power plants; Cerro Prieto I – Units 1-5; Cerro Prieto II – Units 1-2 and Cerro Prieto III – Units 1-2; Cerro Prieto IV – Units 1-4; Expansion of Cerro Prieto and nearby prospects; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 13. 14. Hatchobaru Power Station, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan: Overview of Japanese geothermal development; Hatchobaru geothermal field; Geological setting; Production and reinjection; Hatchobaru power units; Double-flash units; Binary unit; Conclusion and forecast; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 14. 15. Mutnovsky Flash-Steam Power Plant, Kamchakta Peninsula, Russia; Setting, exploration, and early developments; Conceptual model of Mutnovsky geothermal field; Verkhne-Mutnovsky 12 MW power plant; Mutnovsky first-stage 50 MW power plant; Future power units at Mutnovsky Verkhne-Mutnovsky IV; Mutnovsky second stage; References; 16. Miravalles Power Station, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica; Traveling to Miravalles; History of Geothermal Development; Wells; Power generation; Calcite inhibition system; Acid neutralization system; Environmental protection and monitoring; References; 17. Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA; Introduction; Exploration and discovery; The first Heber binary plant; The second Heber binary plant; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 17. 18. Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley California, USA; Setting and exploration; Magmamax binary power plant; Modified Magmamax binary power plant; Conclusion; References.

Bibliographic & Ordering Information
Hardbound, 512 pages, Publication Date: JUL-2005

ISBN-13: 978-1-85617-474-9
ISBN-10: 1-85617-474-3
USD 230
GBP 145
EUR 210

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Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century

Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century

By Harsh Gupta, Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi, India
Sukanta Roy, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India

More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.

Preface. 1. The Energy Outlook. 2. Basic Concepts. 3. Heat Transfer. 4. Geothermal Systems and Resources. 5. Exploration Techniques. 6. Assessment and Exploitation. 7. The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. 8. Worldwide Status of Geothermal Resource Utilization. 9. Thermal Energy of the Oceans.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, 292 pages, Publication date: OCT-2006
ISBN-13: 978-0-444-52875-9
ISBN-10: 0-444-52875-X
Price: Order form
GBP 68.99
USD 120
EUR 99.95

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The Future of Geothermal: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal

The Future of Geothermal: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal
An assessment by an MIT-led interdisciplinary panel
[Cambridge, Mass.]: MIT, 2006. 2 v. ISBN 0-615-13438-6

Scope: A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

Geothermal resources span a wide range of heat sources from the Earth, including not only the more easily developed, currently economic hydrothermal resources; but also the Earth’s deeper, stored thermal energy, which is present anywhere. Although conventional hydrothermal resources are used effectively for both electric and nonelectric applications in the United States, they are somewhat limited in their location and ultimate potential for supplying electricity. Beyond these conventional
resources are EGS resources with enormous potential for primary energy recovery using heat-mining technology, which is designed to extract and utilize the earth’s stored thermal energy. In between these two extremes are other unconventional geothermal resources such as coproduced water and geopressured geothermal resources. EGS methods have been tested at a number of sites around the world and have been improving steadily. Because EGS resources have such a large potential for the long term, we focused our efforts on evaluating what it would take for EGS and other unconventional geothermal resources to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric-generating capacity by 2050.

Although somewhat simplistic, the geothermal resource can be viewed as a continuum in several dimensions. The grade of a specific geothermal resource would depend on its temperature-depth relationship (i.e., geothermal gradient), the reservoir rock’s permeability and porosity, and the amount of fluid saturation. High-grade hydrothermal resources have high average thermal gradients, high rock permeability and porosity, sufficient fluids in place, and an adequate reservoir recharge of fluids – all EGS resources lack at least one of these. For example, reservoir rock may be hot enough but not produce sufficient fluid for viable heat extraction, either because of low formation permeability/connectivity and insufficient reservoir volume, and/or the absence of naturally contained fluids.

Three main components were considered in the analysis:
1. Resource – estimating the magnitude and distribution of the U.S. EGS resource.
2. Technology – establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, and thermal energy conversion to electricity.
3. Economics – estimating costs for EGS-supplied electricity on a national scale using newly developed methods for mining heat from the earth. Developing levelized energy costs and supply curves as a function of invested R&D and deployment levels in evolving U.S. energy markets.

Full Text Available

All About Geothermal Energy - Basics

All About Geothermal Energy - Basics

***What is geothermal energy?
***What are the different ways in which geothermal energy can be used?
***What more can you tell me about geothermal electric power plants?
***What is a baseload resource?
***What is “availability factor” and “capacity factor”?
***Where can I find more detailed information about geothermal energy?

What is geothermal energy?
Geothermal energy is defined as heat from the Earth. It is a clean, renewable resource that provides energy in the United States and around the world. It is considered a renewable resource because the heat emanating from the interior of the Earth is essentially limitless. The heat continuously flowing from the Earth’s interior is estimated to be equivalent to 42 million megawatts of power ... .

What are the different ways in which geothermal energy can be used?

Geothermal energy can be used for electricity production, for direct use purposes, and for home heating efficiency (through geothermal heat pumps).

***Geothermal electricity
To develop electricity from geothermal resources, wells are drilled into the natural hot water or steam, known as a geothermal reservoir. The reservoir collects many meters below the groundwater table. Wells bring the geothermal liquid to the surface, where it is converted at a power plant into electricity ... .

***Direct Use
Direct use applications utilize geothermal heat without first converting it to electricity, such as for space heating and cooling, food preparation, industrial processes, etc. People have been taking advantage of direct use applications for centuries ... .

***Geothermal Heat Pumps (GHPs)
Geothermal heat pumps are devices that take advantage of the relatively constant temperature of the Earth's interior, using it as a source and sink of heat for both heating and cooling. When cooling, heat is extracted from the space and dissipated into the Earth; when heating, heat is extracted from the Earth and pumped into the space ... .

What more can you tell me about geothermal electric power plants?
There are four widely used types of geothermal power plants, and three types that are more experimental at this time.

*** Flash Power Plant
Geothermal steam is separated in a surface vessel (steam separator) and delivered to the turbine, and the turbine powers a generator.

***Dry Steam Power Plant
Steam directly from the geothermal reservoir runs the turbines that power the generator, and no separation is necessary because wells only produce steam. The image below is a more simplified version than the image above.

***Binary Power Plant
Recent advances in geothermal technology have made possible the economic production of electricity from lower temperature geothermal resources, at 100o C (212o F) to 150o C (302 o F). Known as binary geothermal plants, these facilities reduce geothermal energy’s already low emission rate to near zero.

In the binary process, the geothermal water heats another liquid, such as isobutane, that boils at a lower temperature than water. The two liquids are kept completely separate through the use of a heat exchanger used to transfer the heat energy from the geothermal water to the “working-fluid." The secondary fluid vaporizes into gaseous vapor and (like steam) the force of the expanding vapor turns the turbines that power the generators.

***Flash/Binary Combined Cycle
This type of plant, which uses a combination of flash and binary technology, has been used effectively to take advantage of the benefits of both technologies. In this type of plant, the flashed steam is first converted to electricity with a backpressure steam turbine, and the low-pressure steam exiting the backpressure turbine is condensed in a binary system


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Sunday, May 20, 2007

Launch of The Geothermal Energy Blog

The Geothermal Energy Blog is devoted to the documentation of key monographic literature relating to all aspects of geothermal energy, most notably its nature, applications, and technologies. It is focused on non-technical issues as well.

The Geothermal Energy Blog was formally established on May 20 2007