Wednesday, June 13, 2007

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000 | 2005

Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States 2000

John W. Lund(1), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Alex Sifford(2), and R. Gordon Bloomquist(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR
(3)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
Klamath Falls OR: Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, 2000.

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The presentinstalled capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

Conclusions
Direct heat use has had a steady growth of six percent compounded annually over the past ten years. This compares to the growth rate of four percent between 1980 and 1990. Growth during 1990 to 2000 could have been higher, but competition from natural gas was a major factor. There are some positive signs on the horizon, in additional to the aquaculture growth, with proposed new district heating projects in Mammoth, CA, Reno, NV and Sun Valley, ID, and a zinc extraction plant in the Imperial Valley. The Reno project could expand district heating by 250 MWt with large commercial and industrial building heating (Lienau, 1997). The zinc project by CalEnergy Company, Inc., brought on-line in mid-2000, extracts 33,000 tons (30,000 tonnes) of zinc annually from geothermal water using power from a new geothermal electric plant. The waste water from eight power plants (totaling 300 MWe), having 600 ppm of zinc is utilized. In addition, the extraction of silica and manganese will also be considered (Clutter, 2000).

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp106.pdf]

The United States of America Country Update
John W. Lund(1), R. Gordon Bloomquist(2), Tonya L. Boyd(1), Joel Renner(3)
(1)Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR
(2)Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA
(3)Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID
Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005, Antalya, Turkey, 24-29 April 2005

ABSTRACT
Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity (gross) for electric power generation is 2,534 MWe with about 2,000 MWe net delivering power to the grid producing approximately 17,840 GWh per year for a 80.4% gross capacity factor. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The latest development at The Geysers, starting in 1998, is injecting recycled wastewater from two communities into the reservoir, which presently has recovered about 100 MWe of power generation. The second pipeline from the Santa Rosa area has just come on line. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and groundsource heat pumps. The installed capacity is 7,817 MWt and the annual energy use is about 31,200 TJ or 8,680 GWh. The largest application is ground-source(geothermal) heat pumps (69% of the energy use), and the next largest direct-uses are in space heating and agricultural drying. Direct utilization (without heat pumps) is increasing at about 2.6% per year; whereas electric power plant development is almost static, with only about 70 MWe added since 2000 (there were errors in the WGC2000 tabulation). A new 185-MWe plant being proposed for the Imperial Valley and about 100 MWe for Glass Mountain in northern California could be online by 2007-2008. Several new plants are proposed for Nevada totaling about 100 MWe and projects have been proposed in Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon and Utah. The total planned in the next 10 years is 632 MWe. The energy savings from electric power generation, direct-uses and ground-source heat pumps amounts to almost nine million tonnes of equivalent fuel oil per years and reduces air pollution by almost eight million tonnes of carbon annually (compared to fuel oil.

Source
[http://geoheat.oit.edu/pdf/tp121.pdf]

Sunday, June 10, 2007

Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption


Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption: Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design
Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption - Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design, Izmir, Turkey, 6-17 June 2005
Editor: Halime Ö. Paksoy,

| Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 | xii, 447 p. | Hardcover | ISBN 9781402052880 |

Series: NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry , Vol. 234

About this book
We all share a small planet. Our growing thirst for energy already threatens the future of our earth. Fossil fuels – energy resources of today – are not evenly distributed on the earth. 10% of the world’s population exploits 90% of its resources. Today’s energy systems rely heavily on fossil fuel resources which are diminishing ever faster.

The world must prepare for a future without fossil fuels.

Thermal energy storage provides us with a flexible heating and/or cooling tool to combat climate change through conserving energy and increasing energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources.

Thermal storage applications have been proven to be efficient and financially viable, yet they have not been exploited sufficiently.

Çukurova University, Turkey in collaboration with Ljubljana University, Slovenia and the International Energy Agency Implementing Agreement on Energy Conservation Through Energy Storage (IEA ECES IA) has organized this NATO Advanced Study Institute on Thermal Energy Storage for Sustainable Energy Consumption – Fundamentals, Case Studies and Design (NATO ASI TESSEC), in Cesme, Izmir, Turkey on June 6-17, 2005.

Eminent experts who have worked in a number of Annexes of IEA ECES IA were among the lecturers of this Advanced Study Institute. 24 lecturers from Canada, Germany, Japan, The Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and USA have all enthusiastically contributed to the scientific programme. In Çesme, Turkey, 65 students from 17 countries participated in this 2 week summer school.

This book contains the manuscripts prepared based on the lectures included in the scientific programme of the NATO ASI TESSEC. ... [and] [d]esign example assignments from the computer workshops [are also provided].

Table of Contents
Preface
List of Contributors.
I. Introduction
History of Thermal Energy Storage; E. Morofsk. Energetic, Exergetic, Environmental and Sustainability Aspects of Thermal Energy Storage Systems; I. Dincer and M.A. Rosen.
II. Climate Change and Thermal Energy Storage
What Engineers Need to Know about Climate Change and Energy Storage; E. Morofsky. Global Warming is Large-Scale Thermal Energy Storage; Bo Nordell. Energy Storage for Sustainable Future - A Solution to Global Warming; H. Evliya.
III. Energy Efficient Design and Economics of TES.
Energy Efficient Building Design and Thermal Energy Storage; E. Morofsky. Heat Storage by Phase Changing Materials and Thermoeconomics; Y. Demirel.
IV. Underground Thermal Energy Storage.
Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES); O. Andersson. Advances in Geothermal Response Testing; H.J.L. Witte. Freezing Problems in Borehole Heat Exchangers; B. Nordell and A.-K. Ahlström. Three Years Monitoring of a Borehole Thermal Energy Store of a UK Office Building; H.J.L. Witte and A.J. Van Gelder. A Unique Borehole Thermal Storage System at University of Ontario Institute of Technology; I. Dincer and M.A. Rosen. BTES for Heating and Cooling of the Astronomy House in Lund; O. Andersson. Bo 01 ATES System for Heating and Cooling in Malmö; O. Andersson. ATES for District Cooling in Stockholm; O. Andersson. Energy Pile System in New Building of Sapporo City University; K. Nagano.
V. Phase Change Materials.
Phase Change Materials and their Basic Properties; H. Mehling and L.F. Cabeza. Phase Change Materials: Application Fundamentals; H. Mehling et al. Temperature Control with Phase Change Materials; L.F. Cabeza and H. Mehling. Application of PCM for Heating and Cooling in Buildings; H. Mehling, et al. The Sundsvall Snow Storage - Six Years of Operation; B. Nordell and K. Skogsberg. Development of the PCM Floor Supply Air Conditioning System; K. Nagano.
VI. Thermochemical Energy Storage.
Chemical Energy Conversion Technologies for Efficient Energy Use; Y. Kato. Sorption Theory for Thermal Energy Storage; A. Hauer. Adsorption Systems for TES - Design and Demonstration Projects; A. Hauer. Open Absorption Systems for Air Conditioning and Thermal Energy Storage; A. Hauer, E. Lãvemann.
Subject Index.

Source [http://tinyurl.com/yp4hle]

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Saturday, June 2, 2007

Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology


Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology
Edited by Mary H. Dickson and Mario Fanelli

Earthscan | May 2005 | Hardback | 226 pp | ISBN 1844071847 | £55.00

Geothermal energy refers to the heat contained within the Earth that generates geological phenomena on a planetary scale. Today, this term is often associated with man€s efforts to tap in to this vast energy source. Geothermal Energy: Utilization and Technology is a detailed reference text, describing the various methods and technologies used to exploit the earth's heat.

Beginning with an overview of geothermal energy and the state of the art, leading international experts in the field cover the main applications of geothermal energy, including:

***electricity generation
***space and district heating
***space cooling
***greenhouse heating
***aquaculture
***industrial applications.

The final third of the book focuses upon environmental impact and economic, financial and legal considerations, providing a comprehensive review of these topics.

Each chapter is written by a different author, but to a set style, beginning with aims and objectives and ending with references, self-assessment questions and answers. Case studies are included throughout.

Table of Contents
Geothermal Background
Electricity Generation
Space and District Heating
Space Cooling
Greenhouse Heating
Aquaculture
Industrial Applications
Environmental Impacts and Mitigation
Economics and Financing
Index

Source [http://www.cplbookshop.com/contents/C2345.htm]

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[http://tinyurl.com/2hh32p]

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Saturday, May 26, 2007

Geothermal Power


Geothermal Power

By Neil Morris
Black Rabbit Books
Children's Books/Ages
9/12 Science
32 pages
Published 2006
ISBN 1583409068

Table of Contents
Heat from the earch ..... 4
Inside our planet ..... 6
Volcanic world ..... 8
Hot springs and geysers ..... 10
In ancient times ..... 12
Developing industry ..... 14
Direct use ..... 16
Generating electricity ..... 18
Heat pumps ..... 20
Around the world ..... 22
Renewable benefits ..... 24
Potential problems ..... 26
Future trends ..... 28
Glossary ..... 30
Index ..... 32

Google Book Search [http://tinyurl.com/2w8bfu]

Monday, May 21, 2007

Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies


Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies
By Ronald DiPippo, Energy Systems Consultant, Chancellor Professor Emeritus, University of Massachussets Dartmouth, USA

Description
Geothermal Power Plants: Principles, Applications and Case Studies is the latest book from Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts Dartmouth. It is a single resource on all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for electric power generation. Written in one voice by a respected authority in the field with twenty-five years of experience in geothermal research, teaching, and consulting, it is intended for those involved in any aspect of the geothermal industry. Grounded in fundamental scientific and engineering principles, its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of actual case studies from historic and present-day plants. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book. The Second Law is used extensively to assess the performance and guide the design of various types of geothermal energy conversion systems. The case studies included in the third part of the book are chosen from plants around the world, and increase the reader's understanding of the elements involved in gaining access to, and making use of, this important renewable energy resource.

The book is illustrated with over 240 photographs and drawings, many in full color. Nine chapters include practice problems, with answers, for the reader to test his/her understanding of the material. A comprehensive and definitive worldwide compilation of every geothermal power plant that has ever operated, unit by unit, is given in detailed tables as an appendix. In another appendix, DiPippo offers a concise digest of applicable thermodynamics.

Contents
PART ONE RESOURCE IDENTIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENT:
1. Geology of Geothermal Regions; Introduction; The earth and its atmosphere; Active geothermal regions; Model of a hydrothermal geothermal resource; Other types of geothermal resources; References; Problems. 2. Exploration Strategies and Techniques: Introduction; Objectives of an exploration program; Phases of an exploration program; Synthesis and interpretation; The next step: drilling; References; Problems. 3. Geothermal Well Drilling; Introduction; Site preparation and drilling equipment; Drilling operations; Safety precautions; References; Reservoir Engineering; Introduction; Reservoir and well flow; Well testing; Reservoir modeling and simulation; References; Problems.

PART TWO GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATING SYSTEMS
5. Single-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Example: Single-flash optimisation; Optimum separator temperature: An approximate formulation; Environmental aspects for single-flash plants; Equipment list for single-flash plants; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 5; Problems. 6. Double-Flash Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Gathering system design considerations; Energy conversion system; Thermodynamics of the conversion process; Temperature-entropy process diagram; Flash and separation processes; HP- and LP-turbine expansion processes; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Optimization methodology; Example: Double-flash optimisation; Scale potential in waste brine; Silica chemistry; Silica scaling potential in flash plants; Environmental aspects for double-flash plants; Equipment list for double-flash plants; Wellhead, brine and steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Geofluid disposal system; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 6; Problems. 7. Dry-Steam Power Plants; Introduction; Origins and nature of dry-steam resources; Steam gathering system; Energy conversion system; Turbine expansion process; Condensing and cooling tower processes; utilization efficiency; Example: Optimum wellhead pressure; Environmental aspects of dry-steam plants; Equipment list for dry-steam plants; Steam supply system; Turbine-generator and controls; Condenser, gas ejection and pollution control (where needed); Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Noise abatement system (where required); Condensate Disposal System; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 7; Problems. 8. Binary Cycle Power Plants: Introduction; Basic binary systems; Turbine analysis; Condenser analysis; Feedpump analysis; Heat exchanger analysis: Preheater and evaporator; Overall cycle analysis; Working fluid selection; Thermodynamic properties; Sonic velocity and turbine size; Health, safety and environmental considerations; Advanced binary cycles; Ideal binary cycle; Dual-pressure binary cycle; Dual-fluid binary cycle; Kalina binary cycles; Environmental impact of binary cycles; Equipment list for basic binary plants; Downwell pumps and motors; Brine supply system; Brine/working fluid heat exchangers; Turbine-generator and controls; Working fluid condenser, accumulator and storage system; Working fluid feed pump system; Heat rejection system; Back-up systems; Brine disposal system; Fire protection system (if working fluid is flammable); References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 8; Problems; 9. Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems; Introduction; Hybrid single-flash and double-flash systems; Integrated single- and double-flash plants; Combined single- and double-flash plants; Hybrid flash-binary systems; Combined flash-binary plants; Integrated flash-binary plants; Example: Integrated flash-binary hybrid system; Total-flow systems; Axial-flow impulse turbine; Rotary separator turbine; Helical screw expander; Conclusions; Hybrid fossil-geothermal systems; Fossil-superheat systems; Geothermal-preheat system; Geopressure-geothermal hybrid systems; Combined heat and power plants; Hot dry rock and enhanced geothermal systems; Fenton Hill HDR project Hijiori HDR project; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 9; Problems. 10. Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems; Introduction; First law for open, steady systems; Second law for open, steady systems; Exergy; General concept; Exergy of fluid streams; Exergy for heat transfer; Exergy for work transfer; Exergy accounting for open, steady systems; Exergy efficiencies and applications to geothermal plants; Definitions of exergy efficiencies; Exergy efficiencies for steam turbines; Exergy efficiencies for heat exchangers; Exergy efficiencies for flash vessels; Exergy efficiencies for compressors; References; Problems.

PART THREE GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANT CASE STUDIES: 11. Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy; History of development; Geology and reservoir characteristics; Power plants; Early power plants; Power plants of the modern era; Direct-intake, exhausting-to-atmosphere units; Direct-intake, condensing units; Recent power plant designs; Mitigation of environmental impact; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 11. 12. The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, U.S.A: History and early power plants; Geographic and geologic setting; Well drilling; Steam pipeline system; Power plants; Plant design under PG SMUDGEO #1 plant design; Power plant operations under Calpine ownership; Recharging the reservoir; Toward sustainability; References. 13. Cerro Prieto Power Station, Baja California Norte, Mexico: Overview of Mexican geothermal development; Cerro Prieto geographical and geological setting; Cerro Prieto power plants; Cerro Prieto I – Units 1-5; Cerro Prieto II – Units 1-2 and Cerro Prieto III – Units 1-2; Cerro Prieto IV – Units 1-4; Expansion of Cerro Prieto and nearby prospects; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 13. 14. Hatchobaru Power Station, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan: Overview of Japanese geothermal development; Hatchobaru geothermal field; Geological setting; Production and reinjection; Hatchobaru power units; Double-flash units; Binary unit; Conclusion and forecast; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 14. 15. Mutnovsky Flash-Steam Power Plant, Kamchakta Peninsula, Russia; Setting, exploration, and early developments; Conceptual model of Mutnovsky geothermal field; Verkhne-Mutnovsky 12 MW power plant; Mutnovsky first-stage 50 MW power plant; Future power units at Mutnovsky Verkhne-Mutnovsky IV; Mutnovsky second stage; References; 16. Miravalles Power Station, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica; Traveling to Miravalles; History of Geothermal Development; Wells; Power generation; Calcite inhibition system; Acid neutralization system; Environmental protection and monitoring; References; 17. Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA; Introduction; Exploration and discovery; The first Heber binary plant; The second Heber binary plant; References; Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 17. 18. Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley California, USA; Setting and exploration; Magmamax binary power plant; Modified Magmamax binary power plant; Conclusion; References.

APPENDICES
INDEX
Bibliographic & Ordering Information
Hardbound, 512 pages, Publication Date: JUL-2005

ISBN-13: 978-1-85617-474-9
ISBN-10: 1-85617-474-3
Imprint: ELSEVIER
USD 230
GBP 145
EUR 210

Source [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/705725/description]

Open WorldCat [http://www.worldcatlibraries.org/wcpa/top3mset/58829512]

Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century


Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century

By Harsh Gupta, Department of Ocean Development, New Delhi, India
Sukanta Roy, National Geophysical Research Institute, Hyderabad, India

Description
More than 20 countries generate electricity from geothermal resources and about 60 countries make direct use of geothermal energy. A ten-fold increase in geothermal energy use is foreseeable at the current technology level. Geothermal Energy: An Alternative Resource for the 21st Century provides a readable and coherent account of all facets of geothermal energy development and summarizes the present day knowledge on geothermal resources, their exploration and exploitation. Accounts of geothermal resource models, various exploration techniques, drilling and production technology are discussed within 9 chapters, as well as important concepts and current technological developments.

Contents
Preface. 1. The Energy Outlook. 2. Basic Concepts. 3. Heat Transfer. 4. Geothermal Systems and Resources. 5. Exploration Techniques. 6. Assessment and Exploitation. 7. The Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. 8. Worldwide Status of Geothermal Resource Utilization. 9. Thermal Energy of the Oceans.

Bibliographic & ordering Information
Hardbound, 292 pages, Publication date: OCT-2006
ISBN-13: 978-0-444-52875-9
ISBN-10: 0-444-52875-X
Imprint: ELSEVIER
Price: Order form
GBP 68.99
USD 120
EUR 99.95

Source [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/710111/description]

The Future of Geothermal: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal

The Future of Geothermal: Impact of Enhanced Geothermal
An assessment by an MIT-led interdisciplinary panel
[Cambridge, Mass.]: MIT, 2006. 2 v. ISBN 0-615-13438-6

Synopsis
Scope: A comprehensive assessment of enhanced, or engineered, geothermal systems was carried out by an 18-member panel assembled by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to evaluate the potential of geothermal energy becoming a major energy source for the United States.

Geothermal resources span a wide range of heat sources from the Earth, including not only the more easily developed, currently economic hydrothermal resources; but also the Earth’s deeper, stored thermal energy, which is present anywhere. Although conventional hydrothermal resources are used effectively for both electric and nonelectric applications in the United States, they are somewhat limited in their location and ultimate potential for supplying electricity. Beyond these conventional
resources are EGS resources with enormous potential for primary energy recovery using heat-mining technology, which is designed to extract and utilize the earth’s stored thermal energy. In between these two extremes are other unconventional geothermal resources such as coproduced water and geopressured geothermal resources. EGS methods have been tested at a number of sites around the world and have been improving steadily. Because EGS resources have such a large potential for the long term, we focused our efforts on evaluating what it would take for EGS and other unconventional geothermal resources to provide 100,000 MWe of base-load electric-generating capacity by 2050.

Although somewhat simplistic, the geothermal resource can be viewed as a continuum in several dimensions. The grade of a specific geothermal resource would depend on its temperature-depth relationship (i.e., geothermal gradient), the reservoir rock’s permeability and porosity, and the amount of fluid saturation. High-grade hydrothermal resources have high average thermal gradients, high rock permeability and porosity, sufficient fluids in place, and an adequate reservoir recharge of fluids – all EGS resources lack at least one of these. For example, reservoir rock may be hot enough but not produce sufficient fluid for viable heat extraction, either because of low formation permeability/connectivity and insufficient reservoir volume, and/or the absence of naturally contained fluids.

Three main components were considered in the analysis:
1. Resource – estimating the magnitude and distribution of the U.S. EGS resource.
2. Technology – establishing requirements for extracting and utilizing energy from EGS reservoirs including drilling, reservoir design and stimulation, and thermal energy conversion to electricity.
3. Economics – estimating costs for EGS-supplied electricity on a national scale using newly developed methods for mining heat from the earth. Developing levelized energy costs and supply curves as a function of invested R&D and deployment levels in evolving U.S. energy markets.

Full Text Available
[http://geothermal.inel.gov/publications/future_of_geothermal_energy.pdf]